A Misinformation Prevention Reading List

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Presented here is a misinformation prevention reading list. This list is by no means exhaustive. The emphasis is on insights from foundational and background issues about misinformation online. The importance of critical thinking and analytical thinking skills is also highlighted as pre-requisite for prevention of online misinformation. This list is separated into two main categories: popular literature and more advanced literature. The popular literature is divided into books, report/manuals/government documents, papers/articles and blog posts/opinion. Sixty-eight items are listed here, for reading, of which 20 are highly recommended (highlighted in blue font). The literature spans roughly 150 years from 1859 (John Stuart Mill’s On Liberty,) to 2021 (Cass Sunstein’s Liars).




Reading list


Highly recommended works are highlighted in blue



J. Haber (2020). Critical Thinking

D Levin (2020). A Field Guide to Lies

C. Otis (2020). True or False? A CIA Analyst’s Guide to Spotting Fake News

M. Upson et al. (2021). Information Now: A Graphic Guide to Student Research and Web Literacy


Reports/Manuals/Government Documents

The Peak Performance Center (undated). Analytical Thinking and Critical Thinking.

C. Silverman (2014). The Verification Handbook: Disinformation and Media Manipulation. European Journalism Center.

C. Wardle and H. Derakhshan (2017). Information Disorder: Toward an Interdisciplinary Framework for Research and Policy Making. Council of   Europe.

CHEQ/University of Baltimore (2019). The Economic Cost of Bad Actors on the Internet.

C. François (2019). Actors, Behaviors, Content: A Disinformation ABC. Transatlantic Working Group.

S. Lewandowsky and J. Cook,  (2020). The Conspiracy Theory Handbook. Center for Climate Change Communication; George Mason University.

S. Aral (2021). Social Media at A Crossroads: 25 Solutions from The Social Media Summit @ MIT. Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

K. Couric et al. (2021). Commission on Information Disorder: Interim Report. Aspen Institute.

HHS.gov Office of the Surgeon General (2021). Confronting Health Misinformation: The U.S. Surgeon General’s Advisory on Building a Healthy  Information Environment.



S. Noble (2017). Google and the Misinformed Public. The Chronicle for Higher Education.

R. DiResta (2018). Free Speech Is Not the Same as Free Reach. Wired.

R. Gonzalez (2018). Don’t Want to Fall for Fake News? Don’t Be Lazy. Wired.

E. Hodgin and J. Kahne (2018). Misinformation in the Information Age: What Teachers Can Do to Support Students. Social Education 82 (4), pp. 208-212.

C. Wardle (2019). Understanding Information Disorder. First Draft.

W. Sady (2019). “Ludwik Fleck”. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 

E. Zuckerman (2019). Building a More Honest Internet: What Would Social Media Look Like if It Served the Public Interest? Columbia Journalism Review.

J.  Cottone (2020). What Do You Know? Facts vs Truth. Psychology Today.

D. Freedman (2020). As QAnon Conspiracy Theories Draw New Believers, Scientists Take Aim at Misinformation Pandemic. Newsweek.

P. Michelman and S. Aral (2020). Can We Amplify the Good and Contain the Bad of Social Media? MIT Sloan Management Review.

E. Gosnell et al. (2021) .How Behavioural Science Reduced the Spread of Misinformation on Tik Tok. Irrational Labs.

K. Hao (2021). How Facebook Got Addicted to Spreading Misinformation. MIT Technology Review.

I. Leslie (2021). How to Have Better Arguments Online. The Guardian.

U.Omoregie (2021) Information Disorder Online is an Issue of Information Quality. Academia Letters, Article 2999.

U. Omoregie (2021). Misinformed About the Information age: The Existential Crisis of Online Social Media.  Business Day.

J. Taylor (2021). Reddit Defends How it Tackles Misinformation As it Opens Its Australian Office. The Guardian.


Blog Posts/Opinion

P. Graham (2008). How To Disagree. Paul Graham.

C. Wardle (2017). Fake News. It’s Complicated. Medium.

C. Meserole (2018). How Misinformation Spreads on Social Media. Brookings Institution.

J. Smith et al. (2018). Designing New Ways to Give Context to News Stories. Facebook

C. Wardle (2018). Information Disorder: The Definitional Toolbox. First Draft.

N. Clegg (2021). You and the Algorithm: It Takes Two to Tango. Facebook.

A. Mantzarlis (2021). Spot Misinformation Online With These Tips. Google.



Avram Turing Blog Posts (Highlights)

U. Omoregie (2021). “Non-Information” and “Off-Information” — Strange Info Disorder Variants. Avram Turing

U. Omoregie (2021). The ‘Harm Principle,’ Free Speech & Misinformation Online. Avram Turing.

U. Omoregie (2021). Viral Content Online: Amplification, Friction & Info Quality. Avram Turing.

K. Ryall (2021). Facts, Arguments and an Analytical Checklist. Avram Turing.


More Advanced Material

J. Mill (1859) On Liberty.

G. Frege (1892) Sense and Reference. The Philosophical Review 1948; 57 (3) pp. 209-230

J. Dewey (1910). How We Think. 

L. Wittgenstein (1921). Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus. 

L. Fleck (1935). The Genesis and Development of a Scientific Fact.

(A good summary of this book and Ludwik Fleck’s philosophy can be found at: W. Sady, (2019). “Ludwik Fleck”, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy).

L. Floridi (2010). Information: A Very Short Introduction. 

V. Swami et al. (2014). Analytical Thinking Reduces Belief in Conspiracy Theories. Cognition; 133: 572-585.

T. Williamson (2015). Knowledge and Belief. 24.09x Minds and Machines, MITx (edX).

S. Zuboff (2015).Big Other: Surveillance Capitalism and the Prospects of an Information Civilization. Journal of Information Technology; 30(1),pp.75-89

H. Allcott and M. Gentzkow (2017). Social Media and Fake News in the 2016 Election. Journal of Economic Perspectives; 31(2) pp.211-236.

M. Beaney (2017). Analytic Philosophy: A Very Short Introduction.

A. Marwick and R. Lewis (2017). Media Manipulation and Disinformation Online. Data & Society.

R. Caplan et al. (2018). Dead Reckoning: Navigating Content Moderation After ‘Fake News.’ Data & Society.

J. Kavanagh and M. Ritch (2018). Truth Decay. Rand Corporation.

S. Noble (2018). Algorithms of Oppression: How Search Engines Reinforce Racism. 

A. Zhang et al. (2018). A Structured Response to Misinformation: Defining and Annotating Credibility Indicators in News Articles. Companion   Proceedings of the World Wide Web Conference 2018, pp. 603-612.

J. Cook et al. (2019). Deconstructing Climate Misinformation to Identify Reasoning Errors. Environmental Research Letters. 13(2):024018.

M. Golebiewski and d. boyd (2019). Data Voids: Where Missing Data Can Easily Be Exploited. Data & Society.

G. Lim (2019). Disinformation Annotated Bibliography. Citizens Lab

W. Lycan (2019). Philosophy of Language.

C. O’Connor and J. Weatherall (2019). The Misinformation Age: How False Beliefs Spread. 

U. Ammara et al. (2020). Analyzing Misinformation Through the Lens of Systems Thinking. Proceedings of the 2020 Truth and Trust Online; pp.55-   63.

S. Aral (2020). The Hype Machine: How Social Media Disrupts Our Elections, Our Economy and Our Health – and How We Must Adapt.

C. Miller and C. Colliver (2020), Developing a Civil Society Response to Online Manipulation. Institute for Strategic Dialogue.

L. Turico and M. Obrenovic (2020) Misinformation, Disinformation, Malinformation: Causes Trends and Their Influence on Democracy. Heinrich   Böll Foundation

J. Bak-Coleman et al. (2021). Stewardship of Global Collective Behavior. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA; 6;118(27)

U. Omoregie (2021). Making the ‘Harm Principle’ Central to Approaches Against Information Disorder. SocArXiv.

U. Omoregie (2021). Online Misinformation Analysis and Information Quality Theory. SocArXiv.

G. Pennycook et al. (2021). Shifting Attention to Accuracy Can Reduce Misinformation Online. Nature; 592, pp.590–595.

C.Sunstein (2021). Liars: Falsehood and Free Speech in an Age of Deception. 

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