Here you will find external publication by analysts at Avram Turing.

Through our research, in 2021, we coined two new concepts “non-information” and “off-information” and also a novel conceptual framework then introduced them to the international research community and the information quality body of knowledge.



Our book is an Amazon bestseller (Library & Information Science category) available in Kindle, paperback and hardback versions

Book description:

Noam Chomsky
Institute Professor Emeritus, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

"...the book, it will be an important one"
Zainab Usman, PhD (Oxford)
Senior fellow and director of the Africa Program at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace

Online social media has brought together billions of people from around the world. The impact of diverse platforms such as Facebook, WeChat, Reddit, LinkedIn, Signal, WhatsApp, Gab, Instagram, Telegraph etc. has been transformational. The number of active users of the six most popular online social networks combined is estimated at about 10 billion. The internet is a place where online written content can be created, consumed and diffused without any real intermediary. This empowering aspect of the Web is generally a force for good: people, on the whole, are better informed and participation in online discussion is more inclusive (barriers to participation are reduced). As online activity has grown, however, research has revealed a darker side to online social media and its ability to influence behaviour negatively in the real world.

In this short monograph, information quantity theory, brilliantly espoused by Claude Shannon (father of the information age) is balanced by an approach to information quality inspired by Ludwig Wittgenstein. The authors propose a framework for online misinformation analysis and provide a tentative online information quality theory. The concept of "algorithmic choice" for the ranking of content for social media users is endorsed as a way forward.



Newspaper articles

Information Analysis Online: Opinion, Belief, Truth and Fact. Business Day, 12 May 2022, p. 10

Amplification or Friction? Misinformation Online is About Information Quality. Business Day, 29 July 2021, p.10

'Harm Principle 2.0': An Update Required for Online Free Speech Today. Business Day, 23 July 2021, p.11

Misinformation Online is a $78 Billion Annual Problem Affecting Global Economy. Business Day, 18 March 2021, p.11

Misinformed About the Information Age: The Existential Crisis of Online Social Media. Business Day, 25 February 2021, p.10

The Time for Society to Act and Prevent a Misinformation Apocalypse is Now. Business Day, 06 October 2020, p.9

Learning to Think Analytically is the Only Immunity During an Infodemic. Business Day, 18 August 2020, p.9


 Research papers

Peer reviewed

Information Disorder Online is an Issue of Information Quality. Academia Letters, Article 2999 (2021). (online version). PDF below:


The ‘Harm Principle’ and Information Disorder Online. Academia Letters, Article 3425 (2021). (online version). PDF below:


Full length versions

Making the ‘Harm Principle’ Central to Approaches Against Information Disorder. SocArXiv, July 2021

Misinformation Analysis and Online Information Quality Theory (A Wittgensteinian Approach). SocArXiv, January 2021

This paper articulates our central thesis, our approach, for online misinformation analysis and our main contribution to the literature. It presents a novel conceptual framework for online misinformation analysis and introduces two new terms "off-information" and "non-information".


Shorter versions

Boolean Logic, Fregean Logic, Wittgensteinian Logic and the Processing of Natural Language. SocArXiv, September 2021

Online Misinformation Analysis through Wittgensteinian Lens. SocArXiv, August 2021

Some Approaches in Online Misinformation Analysis. SocArXiv, August 2021